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History of the United States by Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard

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CONTENTS

PART I. THE COLONIAL PERIOD
chapter page
I. The Great Migration to America 1
The Agencies of American Colonization 2
The Colonial Peoples 6
The Process of Colonization 12
II. Colonial Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce 20
The Land and the Westward Movement 20
Industrial and Commercial Development 28
III. Social and Political Progress 38
The Leadership of the Churches 39
Schools and Colleges 43
The Colonial Press 46
The Evolution in Political Institutions 48
IV. The Development of Colonial Nationalism 56
Relations with the Indians and the French 57
The Effects of Warfare on the Colonies 61
Colonial Relations with the British Government 64
Summary of Colonial Period 73


PART II. CONFLICT AND INDEPENDENCE
V. The New Course in British Imperial Policy 77
George III and His System 77
George III’s Ministers and Their Colonial Policies 79
Colonial Resistance Forces Repeal 83
Resumption of British Revenue and Commercial Policies 87
Renewed Resistance in America 90
Retaliation by the British Government 93
From Reform to Revolution in America 95
VI. The American Revolution 99
Resistance and Retaliation 99
American Independence 101
The Establishment of Government and the New Allegiance 108
Military Affairs 116
The Finances of the Revolution 125
The Diplomacy of the Revolution 127
Peace at Last 132
Summary of the Revolutionary Period 135


PART III. FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNION AND NATIONAL POLITICS
VII. The Formation of the Constitution 139
The Promise and the Difficulties of America 139
The Calling of a Constitutional Convention 143
The Framing of the Constitution 146
The Struggle over Ratification 157
VIII. The Clash of Political Parties 162
The Men and Measures of the New Government 162
The Rise of Political Parties 168
Foreign Influences and Domestic Politics 171
IX. The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power 186
Republican Principles and Policies 186
The Republicans and the Great West 188
The Republican War for Commercial Independence 193
The Republicans Nationalized 201
The National Decisions of Chief Justice Marshall208
Summary of Union and National Politics 212


PART IV. THE WEST AND JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY
X. The Farmers beyond the Appalachians 217
Preparation for Western Settlement 217
The Western Migration and New States 221
The Spirit of the Frontier 228
The West and the East Meet 230
XI. Jacksonian Democracy 238
The Democratic Movement in the East 238
The New Democracy Enters the Arena 244
The New Democracy at Washington 250
The Rise of the Whigs 260
The Interaction of American and European Opinion 265
XII. The Middle Border and the Great West 271
The Advance of the Middle Border 271
On to the Pacific—Texas and the Mexican War 276
The Pacific Coast and Utah 284
Summary of Western Development and National Politics 292


PART V. SECTIONAL CONFLICT AND RECONSTRUCTION
XIII. The Rise of the Industrial System 295
The Industrial Revolution 296
The Industrial Revolution and National Politics 307
XIV.The Planting System and National Politics 316
Slavery—North and South 316
Slavery in National Politics 324
The Drift of Events toward the Irrepressible Conflict 332
XV. The Civil War and Reconstruction 344
The Southern Confederacy 344
The War Measures of the Federal Government 350
The Results of the Civil War 365
Reconstruction in the South 370
Summary of the Sectional Conflict 375


PART VI. NATIONAL GROWTH AND WORLD POLITICS
XVI. The Political and Economic Evolution of the South 379
The South at the Close of the War 379
The Restoration of White Supremacy 382
The Economic Advance of the South 389
XVII. Business Enterprise and the Republican Party 401
Railways and Industry 401
The Supremacy of the Republican Party (1861-1885) 412
The Growth of Opposition to Republican Rule 417
XVIII. The Development of the Great West 425
The Railways as Trail Blazers 425
The Evolution of Grazing and Agriculture 431
Mining and Manufacturing in the West 436
The Admission of New States 440
The Influence of the Far West on National Life 443
XIX. Domestic Issues before the Country(1865-1897) 451
The Currency Question 452
The Protective Tariff and Taxation 459
The Railways and Trusts 460
The Minor Parties and Unrest 462
The Sound Money Battle of 1896 466
Republican Measures and Results 472
XX. America a World Power(1865-1900) 477
American Foreign Relations (1865-1898) 478
Cuba and the Spanish War 485
American Policies in the Philippines and the Orient 497
Summary of National Growth and World Politics 504


PART VII. PROGRESSIVE DEMOCRACY AND THE WORLD WAR
XXI. The Evolution of Republican Policies(1901-1913) 507
Foreign Affairs 508
Colonial Administration 515
The Roosevelt Domestic Policies 519
Legislative and Executive Activities 523
The Administration of President Taft 527
Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912 530
XXII. The Spirit of Reform in America 536
An Age of Criticism 536
Political Reforms 538
Measures of Economic Reform 546
XXIII. The New Political Democracy 554
The Rise of the Woman Movement 555
The National Struggle for Woman Suffrage 562
XXIV. Industrial Democracy 570
Coöperation between Employers and Employees 571
The Rise and Growth of Organized Labor 575
The Wider Relations of Organized Labor 577
Immigration and Americanization 582
XXV. President Wilson and the World War 588
Domestic Legislation 588
Colonial and Foreign Policies 592
The United States and the European War 596
The United States at War 604
The Settlement at Paris 612
Summary of Democracy and the World War 620
Appendix 627
A Topical Syllabus 645
Index 655


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